[4] Revolutionary activity lasted about eight days, involving mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. the Tsar left for the front.[29]. Alexander Kerensky took the opportunity to attack the Tsarist regime. The next day the Grand Duke realised that he would have little support as ruler, so he declined the crown,[43] stating that he would take it only if that was the consensus of democratic action by the Russian Constituent Assembly, which shall define the form of government for Russia. police agents reported that army officers had, for the first time, mingled with the crowds demonstrating against the war and the government on Nevsky Prospekt. The February Revolution in 1917 marked the end of the Tsardom and long-ruling Romanov dynasty. [note 1], During the late afternoon of 26 February O.S (11 March N.S) the Fourth Company of the Pavlovsky Reserve Regiment broke out of their barracks upon learning that another detachment of the regiment had clashed with demonstrators near the Kazan Cathedral. The conflict between the "diarchy" became obvious, and ultimately the regime and the dual power formed between the Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government, instigated by the February Revolution, was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution.[61]. Although few actively joined the rioting, many officers were either shot or went into hiding; the ability of the garrison to hold back the protests was all but nullified. The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd (present-day Saint Petersburg), the then-capital of Russia, where long-standing discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style (8 March New Style). The February Revolution, known in Soviet history as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917. (8 March N.S. Transport service and the supply of food and fuel have become completely disrupted. Historians disagree on the main factors that contributed to this. [45], On 28 February, Rodzianko invited the Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich and Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich to put their signatures to the drafting of the Manifesto, in which Emperor Nicholas II was recommended to introduce the constitutional system in Russia. In all, over 1,300 people were killed during the protests of February 1917.[6]. М. В. Ломоносова. But troops in the city refused. [47] The 300 year-old Romanov dynasty ended with the Grand Duke's decision on 3 March O.S (16 March N.S). The Soviet had stronger practical power because it controlled the workers and the soldiers, but it did not want to become involved in administration and bureaucracy; the Provisional Government lacked support from the population. [40] The protesters of Petrograd burned and sacked the premises of the district court, the headquarters of the secret police, and many police stations. [51] On 3 March O.S (16 March N.S), a provisional government was announced by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma. 1.1.1 By 1917, had reached 200%. On 11 January 1917 [O.S. [48] On 8 March O.S (22 March N.S) the former Tsar, addressed with contempt by the sentries as "Nicholas Romanov", was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo. The First World War was fought on a vast scale and raised unprecedented challenges for the leaders of the combatant nations. The Tsar was a poor military leader and he was now blamed for every defeat. [5] Russia had been suffering from a number of economic and social problems, which compounded after the start of World War I in 1914. Having lost the support of the army and under the advice of his army chiefs and ministers, the Tsar abdicated for himself and his son on 2 March 1917. On 27 August O.S (9 September N.S), feeling betrayed by the Kerensky government, who had previously agreed with his views on how to restore order to Russia, Kornilov pushed on towards Petrograd. There were disturbances on the Nevsky Prospect during the day[32] and in the late afternoon four people were killed. This "ministerial leapfrog", as it came to be known, not only removed competent men from power, but also disorganized the work of government since no one remained long enough in office to master their responsibilities."[22]. The total number of killed and injured in clashes with the police and government troops in Petrograd is estimated around 1,300 people. (9 March N.S), nearly 200,000 protesters filled the streets, demanding the replacement of the Tsar with a more progressive political leader. [52], Dual Power was not prevalent outside of the capital and political systems varied from province to province. The inevitable result was revolution. By nightfall, General Khabalov and his forces faced a capital controlled by revolutionaries. Immediately following the revolution a new Provisional Government was formed. By 1917, the majority Petersburgers had lost faith in the Tsarist regime. [28] By the following day 24 February O.S. This move had disastrous results. Voices How propaganda from the Russian Revolution brought about today’s ‘troll factories’ Under the ‘iPad president’ Medvedev, the internet brought a new dimension to Russian propaganda. The October Revolution inspired a revolutionary wave across the world, including the Hungarian revolution, the German revolution of 1918-1919, and the Chinese revolution of 1925-27. At the same time, socialists also formed the Petrograd Soviet. February was a 'revolution from below'. ), Putilov protesters were joined in the uprising by those celebrating International Woman's Day and protesting against the government's implemented food rationing. [38] The Duma refused to head the revolutionary movement. The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. The revolution occurred in March according to the Western calendar, and in February according to, Ф. А. Гайда, к.и.н., исторический факультет МГУ им. General dissatisfaction resulted partly from the king's increasingly reactionary policy, carried out after 1840 by François Guizot , and partly from the poor conditions of the working class, which were intensified by the economic crisis of 1846–47. A provisional government replaced the Tsar, Nicholas II. On 8 February 1917 on request of the Emperor N. Maklakov and Protopopov drafted the text of a manifesto to dissolve the Duma (before it was opened on 14 February 1917). “What it is important to realise is that from the first the revolution was a revolution of the people. [52] At the same time, the Petrograd Soviet (or workers' council) began organizing and was officially formed on 27 February. He did so on behalf of himself and his son, Tsarevich Alexei. The war was going badly for Russia with a string of defeats. [7] Alexander Rabinowitch summarises the main long-term and short-term causes: Despite its occurrence at the height of World War I, the roots of the February Revolution date further back. Female mutiny that destroyed the Russian Empire), Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia, Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=February_Revolution&oldid=994751382, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2012, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Soviets held the real power to effect change by female protesters marching against food.. Set up a “ workers ’ Soviet ” Nicholas II from his people cancel his appointment, citing his of. 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