Parental reinforcement refers to the frequency of caretakers’ positive behaviors towards youths, such as giving special privileges or compliments. Juvenile violent offending among adolescent boys with a minority background is reported to be a significant problem in several countries, including the Netherlands. Results of the mediation analysis are displayed in Table 7. Funding: Preparation of the manuscript was supported by a grant from the Coordinating Societal Change program of Utrecht University. Various theoretical accounts propose an explanation for this association. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Affiliation Some studies have also indicated that family stress and parenting behaviors mediate the association of SES with youths’ externalizing behavior [16; 23] and delinquency [24]. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths’ delinquency. A socioeconomic… However, this study did not include control variables or measures of economic affluence. We reasoned that a reverse effect of youths’ delinquency on family SES is not plausible enough to justify this tradeoff. Between individuals, SES had a positive effect on neighborhood affluence and parental knowledge and a negative effect on family stress. Specifically, the single parenthood variable controlled for the possibility that parental divorces affected both SES and delinquency over time. We addressed two research questions. In most studies, SES is treated as a static characteristic. Note. Parental characteristics like a low IQ or a genetic propensity for criminal behavior may contribute both to their low SES and to their offspring’s delinquency. Between individuals, parental knowledge displayed a mediating role. Arrest before 14 years are less likely to become adult offenders later in life. We assessed the amount of missing values across all 5030 (503 respondents at 10 waves) observations. This study first replicated the well-established finding that youths with a lower SES are more likely to offend than others with a higher SES. Including such bidirectional effects would have come at a price for power and parsimony. To assess the associations between SES and the hypothesized mediators, we specified separate models with each of these mediators as outcome variable and SES as predictor. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents’ SES was lower than during years in which their parents’ SES was higher. This study began in 1987 by contacting 1004 boys enrolled in the first grade of Pittsburgh primary schools. A family’s SES can be changeable over time. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461.t006. PLoS ONE 10(11): The agreement has to be a contract between two universities with an individual investigator at each university being the scientific contact. This method allowed us to study a large number of delinquent outcomes, while retaining the general population as a reference. Finally, we assessed the statistical significance of the mediational effect using a Sobel test [50]. We furthermore expected within-individual changes in parenting to be related to changes in delinquency. Research indicates that it is very common for American youths to experience poverty during some years, but not during others [5]. Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. SES affects overall human functioning, including our physical and mental health. Yes 29 (1952-1953) THE ECONOMIC FACTOR IN JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Ernest W. Burgess The author is well known as Professor of Sociology in the University of Chicago. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. For each type of delinquency, we separately carried out two types of analysis. Assumptions frequently made as to the differential status distribution of delinquent behavior are questioned. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461, Editor: Karin Bammann, University of Bremen, GERMANY, Received: April 14, 2015; Accepted: October 20, 2015; Published: November 17, 2015, Copyright: © 2015 Rekker et al. 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