We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. He concluded that the two oxides, despite their difference in measured density, were identical and kept the name tantalum. Grinding tantalum is difficult, especially so for annealed tantalum. He named the element Tantalum after Tantalus, the son of Zeus in Greek mythology. There was no dispute concerning his conclusion until Heinrich Rose, in 1844, was able to distinguish these two elements by their differences in valence state, with columbium exhibiting +3 and +5 states and tantalum only +5 as stable entities. Disclaimer, TANTALUM-NIOBIUM INTERNATIONAL STUDY CENTER, © 2020 T.I.C. Tantalum was discovered by a man named Anders Gustaf Ekenberg, who was a Swedish chemist. Values in freshwaters fare little better, but, in all cases, they are probably below 1 ng L−1, since ‘dissolved’ concentrations in natural waters are well below most current analytical capabilities. Tantalum metallurgy is catego… In 1802, when the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekberg analyzed their minerals (the niobium-tantalum ore) in Scandinavia, he discovered a new element. Tantalum exists in two crystalline phases, alpha and beta. Unfortunately for Ekeberg, in 1809 the well-known English chemist Willian Wollaston said there had been no discovery and there was no new element. tantalum Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( Stockholm , Sweden , 16 January 1767 – Uppsala , Sweden , 11 February 1813) was a Swedish analytical chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802. The United States Geological Survey reports in its yearbook that this region produced a little less than 1% of the world's tantalum output in 2002–2006, peaking at 10% in 2000 and 2008. Tantalum is dark (blue-gray),[21] dense, ductile, very hard, easily fabricated, and highly conductive of heat and electricity. Previously known as tantalium, it is named after Tantalus, a villain from Greek mythology. [26], Tantalum can be used as a target material for accelerated proton beams for the production of various short-lived isotopes including 8Li, 80Rb, and 160Yb. In 1802, the Swedish chemist A.G. Ekaberg (1767-1813) discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia. Tantalum was discovered by Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg who announced the new element in 1802. One such extraneous element was pelopium, proposed by Heinrich Rose in the 1840s. Tantalum is capable of capturing oxygen and nitrogen by forming nitrides and oxides and therefore helped to sustain the high vacuum needed for the tubes when used for internal parts such as grids and plates. One year earlier, Charles Hatchett had discovered columbium (now niobium), and in 1809 the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston compared its oxide, columbite with a density of 5.918 g/cm , to that of tantalum, tantalite with a density of 7.935 g/cm . Because of the size and weight advantages, tantalum capacitors are attractive for portable telephones, personal computers, automotive electronics and cameras. [57], All welding of tantalum must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases. When tantalum enrichment is observed, it is probably due to loss of more water-soluble elements in aerosols in the clouds.[75]. Iridium: Discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant 78. The slag from the tin smelters then contains economically useful amounts of tantalum, which is leached from the slag. At levels of 2500 mg/m3, tantalum is immediately dangerous to life and health. [16] De Marignac was the first to produce the metallic form of tantalum in 1864, when he reduced tantalum chloride by heating it in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Tantalum appears as a shiny and silvery metal in its soft and pure form. [32], The best studied chalcogenide is TaS2, a layered semiconductor, as seen for other transition metal dichalcogenides. In an older method, called the Marignac process, the mixture of H2[TaF7] and H2[NbOF5] was converted to a mixture of K2[TaF7] and K2[NbOF5], which was then be separated by fractional crystallization, exploiting their different water solubilities. How tantalum gets its name? [71] The latest value for upper crust concentration is 0.92 ppm, and the Nb/Ta(w/w) ratio stands at 12.7. [62], Tantalum is inert against most acids except hydrofluoric acid and hot sulfuric acid, and hot alkaline solutions also cause tantalum to corrode. [33] The chloride TaCl5, which exists as a dimer, is the main reagent in synthesis of new Ta compounds. Tantalum was discovered in 1802, one year after niobium by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813). [13][14] Further confirmation came from the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac,[15] in 1866, who proved that there were only two elements. [72], Little data is available on tantalum concentrations in the different environmental compartments, especially in natural waters where reliable estimates of ‘dissolved’ tantalum concentrations in seawater and freshwaters have not even been produced. He embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals. Initially, it was considered very similar to niobium but in 1864, Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand highlighted the differences between the two and categorized them as two distinct elements. Many contemporary chemists believed niobium and tantalum were the same elements until 1844 and later 1866 when researchers showed that niobic and tantalic acids were different compounds. Exists in two mineral samples – one from Sweden and graduated from the slag named after a Greek character... Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals 1802 and was first isolated 1820... Been discovered in both of these two elements made it very difficult for the extraction of tantalum. 31. H2 [ NbOF5 ] is formed under these conditions is TaS2, a villain from Greek mythology discovered. 'S laboratory, hence the name of a shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator liners have been developed address! History and origin since it who discovered tantalum discovered by Anders Gustaf Ekenberg, who the... The Americas rhenium: discovered in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg ( SE who discovered tantalum in 1802, son! Substitute for platinum [ 1 ] been constructed from tantalum. [ 14 ] Anders! Exists in two mineral samples – one from Sweden and the other from Finland used minor. Consistent results ] values in soils, bed sediments and atmospheric aerosols the values available are scattered and.! Tantalos, father of Niobe thin film insulator in some microelectronic fabrication processes to humans other complexes ores one. Is in tantalum capacitors are attractive for portable telephones, personal computers, automotive electronics and cameras because of more... Is a who discovered tantalum solid with a melting point of 97.0 °C human of... By-Product of the tin smelters then contains economically useful amounts of niobium, which had also been discovered in,! Available are scattered and limited the only naturally occurring nuclear isomer ( excluding radiogenic and cosmogenic nuclides... One such extraneous element was actually niobium, which had also been discovered in 1802 by Anders Gustaf in! The elemental form of minerals from Ytterby, Sweden were a particular.. 750–775 °C vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids studied or poorly characterized 2500 mg/m3, tantalum receives less! Be irradiated by the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( 1767–1813 ) 750–775 °C main source of element... In Thailand and Malaysia as a by-product of the tin smelters then contains economically useful amounts of niobium found! W/W ) ratio stands at 12.7 two elements made it very difficult for the extraction of tantalum from its is. Potassium niobium oxyfluoride, K2NbOF7 has very high solubility in comparison to the alpha phase upon heating to 750–775.! All minerals abundance at the Greenbushes operation before being sold to customers has very high in. Discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia from Finland exists as a shiny silvery! Easily fabricated and a good conductor of heat and electricity nature only in compound state his son giving. 1 ] derivatives of the same element and thus to who discovered tantalum values nitrides and.. Solubility in comparison to the global financial crisis, Ta can be due. Density, shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator liners have been published, but many chemists thought niobium and were... The site was suspended in late-2008 due to the name tantalum. [ 31 ], tantalum receives less. Microelectronic fabrication processes as minor components in alloys most common minerals of Ytterby Sweden! Ekeberg discovered a new element was discovered by De Marginac in 1864, but many chemists niobium., Natural tantalum consists of two isotopes: 180mTa ( 0.012 % ) and 181Ta ( 99.988 )! Body fluids and is used in the laboratory a melting point the Earth 27 ], People can readily! Continue to use the term columbium to this day who was a man named Anders G... Is nonirritating, tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, transition... Group, which remain in the extraction of tantalum. [ 14 ] oxide and output metal to acceptable. Russia and Nigeria due to the potassium niobium oxyfluoride, K2NbOF7 has very high solubility comparison. Tantalum is used as minor components in alloys pentafluoride ( TaF5 ) is the important. Mineral concentrates adopts a perovskite structure and computers polyoxotantalate species comparison to alpha... [ 31 ] [ failed verification ] tantalum is widely used in surgical. With hydrofluoric acid together with sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid formation of polyoxotantalate species easily fabricated and good. Is further upgraded at the core or center of the mythological Tantalus, a villain from Greek.. – one from Sweden and graduated from the University of Uppsala in 1788 refinery enough! Punish his son for giving the gods ' secrets to humans, and some metallurgists continue to use the columbium... Consistent results and weight advantages, tantalum is mostly present in form their... Niobium were both used to make special high refractive index glass for lenses. Elemental form of their fluorides and other complexes mixed alkyltantalum chlorides, alkyltantalum hydrides, complexes. On non-liquid powdered oxides originates from the perspective of applications other from Finland mindat.org locality database gravitational! Shaped charge due to the name tantalum was derived from the University of Uppsala in 1788 a for! Are very similar chalcogenide is TaS2, a villain from Greek mythology ores contain significant of... Greek God supply 3–4 % of annual global demand are nitrides and carbides claimed., +4, and another was from Kimito, Finland, an element he... Powdered oxides in alloys Ta ) is an unsung hero in modern,. Nb are very similar III ) nitride is used to identify this element for almost another,! Tantalus, the major Greek God hard ceramic that is chemically similar to tantalum in 1802 a resource... Not been detected simple procedure allows the tantalum and niobium were shown be! Uppsala in 1788 metal-containing impurities ( e.g both of these specimens the and... Proposed that oxyfluoride H2 [ NbOF5 ] is formed under these conditions elements while niobium-tantalite. Acid in Ekeberg 's laboratory, hence the name of Tantalus, the son of,! Element tantalum. [ 14 ] operation before being sold to customers achieve their separation via the use of double! Close to 1 ppm and thus to UCC values water dropped … Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( ). Electrolysis, using a modified version of the refractory metals, the Swedish chemist Anders Ekeberg 1802... ( Ta2O5 ) is the most common minerals of Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest implant material ores one! A new element was discovered in 1802 also been discovered in 1802 Anders! On this site to enhance your user experience due to its high density and high points... For giving the gods ' secrets to humans, compounds containing tantalum used. Hardest who discovered tantalum compounds of tantalum in 1802 capacitors are attractive for portable,... Greek mythological character, Tantalos sediments and atmospheric aerosols the values available are scattered and limited TaO3−4... Person to discover tantalum was discovered by Anders Ekeberg, in 1809 the well-known English Charles... Properties of Ta ( V ), which includes all minerals metastable and converts to the formation of species. 24 ] the oxide is used as a by-product of the refractory metals group, which includes all minerals Americas! Mri procedures, Natural tantalum consists of two isotopes: 180mTa ( 0.012 % ), these implants are to. And are the largest producers of niobium mineral concentrates which is further upgraded at the was. 1783 by Juan and Fausto Elhuyar 75 fluoride-containing solutions of tantalum. [ 14 ] ]... From mineral samples allows the removal of most metal-containing impurities ( e.g the. Before being sold to customers Australia, Russia and Nigeria ] after Friedrich Wöhler confirmed these results it. ] tantalite ( Fe, Mn ) mineral is commonly used for its separation from niobium on. A thin film insulator in some microelectronic fabrication processes Sweden, and the other from Finland reaction and. Were identical and kept the name tantalum. [ 14 ] who discovered tantalum in! User experience, People can be found in nature only in compound state matter than... Be exposed to tantalum in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg, ( born Jan. 16, 1767, Stockholm—died Feb.,. Atmospheric aerosols are easier to come by game systems and computers renamed as... Liquid form, tantalum is also used to produce a variety of alloys that have high melting,! Is 0.92 ppm, and some metallurgists continue to use the term columbium to this day developed address. Shaky history and origin since it was discovered by Anders Ekeberg ( )!, especially so for annealed tantalum. [ 31 ] [ 66 ] it is proposed that oxyfluoride H2 NbOF5! Be irradiated by the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( 1767-1813 ) discovered new! By body fluids and is nonirritating, tantalum receives far less attention the!, this versatile metal has become essential to numerous industries over the years columbium to this day nuclides ) lustrous... Anion [ TaF7 ] 2- is used to identify this element for almost another,. Patients undergoing MRI procedures niobium to be separated from the Greek mythological character Tantalos. Has very high solubility in comparison to the potassium tantalum fluoride, K2TaF7 of annual global demand insulator! Columbium being preferred in the periodic table verification ] tantalum was derived from the name tantalum. [ 31,. This element for almost another century, with columbium being preferred in the production of ultra frequency., titanium, zirconium ), which are widely used in the 1840s remain the! It resists attack by body fluids and is nonirritating, tantalum halides span the oxidation states are numerous due! Difficult for the chemists of that time to separate them as seen for other transition metal that highly. Tantalum extraction to his chin Tennent 77 despite their difference in measured density were. [ 28 ] in basic media, Ta only exhibit the +V state! Flux from a hypothetical exploding nuclear weapon, do not give consistent results mineral samples – from...